Chapter 5: Establishment of Papal Authority and the independence of the Church.34
Excommunication of a King withdrew all spiritual support of his rule. This pretty much deposed him because it allowed his subjects to defy him with impunity in the eyes of the Church. This would have given the Pope immense political power.35
In many ways we still struggle with the conflict of loyalty between religious leaders and secular authorities.
Razzia36: Noun — A hostile raid for purposes of conquest, plunder, and capture of slaves.37
Where are/were the Pyranees?38
Part of the impetus behind the crusades was the need for more land.40
Chapter 6: Increasing population = emigration to cities = increased trade and commerce = flourishing industry = increased prosperity.41
Increased trade also increased exposure to, spread of, and assimilation of new ideas.42